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Sabtu, 20 Oktober 2012

Ringkasan Bab 4 SPE_Group J


BAB 4: PEMIKIRAN SEBAGAI ASAS ETIKA & NILAI-NILAI MORAL

1.0  ETIKA

ü Set peraturan – falsafah moral yg memberikan tumpuan kepada tingkah laku individu dalam kehidupannya

1.1     Konsep & Pembahagian Etika

      Satu sistem kepercayaan yg didasarkan kpd moral & diterima utk mengawal tingkah laku manusia
      Kajian ttg apa yg betul & apa yg salah drpd sudut moral
      Berasal drpd perkataan Greek (ethos: character/ perangai)
      Berasal drpd perkataan Latin (mores: moral melibatkan character/ perangai)
      Istilah etiket/ etiquette: tingkah laku yg dianggap baik dlm sst situasi sosial
      Dibahagikan kpd tiga: etika meta, etika normatif, & etika gunaan/ applied

1.1.1   Etika Meta

Ø Membawa maksud di sebalik apa yg dpt dilihat dgn mata kasar
Ø Melibatkan persoalan-persoalan ghaib spt kuasa Tuhan, keagamaan, kebenaran sejagat, peranan akal, dll
Ø Etika Islam menegaskan tanggungjawab penganutnya sbg hamba Allah, tanggungjawab sbg khalifah Allah & tanggungjawab dakwah

1.1.2   Etika Normatif

Ø Membuat kritikan & melakukan penilaian ke atas etika moral yg ada & mencadangkan satu sistem yg standard utk semua
Ø Teori yg digunakan:
                                                              i.     Teori deontologikal: menilai baik-buruk berdasarkan tindakan
                                                            ii.     Teori teleologikal: menilai baik-buruk berdasarkan kesan tindakan

1.1.3   Etika Gunaan

Ø Membincangkan isu-isu khusus dlm kehidupan seharian meliputi pelbagai bidang spt perniagaan, perguruan, perubatan, dll

1.2     Aliran-Aliran Etika

1.2.1   Utilitarianisme

Ø Berasal drpd perkataan utility: guna, berguna/ kegunaan
Ø Menegaskan bahawa manusia patut memaksimumkan kebaikan secara konsisten utk kebaikan seramai mungkin org lain
Ø Diasaskan oleh Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill
Ø Matlamat: utk memberikan kebaikan tertinggi kpd seberapa ramai org

1.2.2   Hedonisme

Ø Berasal drpd perkataan Greek hedone yg menentukan matlamat kehidupan ialah utk mendapatkan kelazatan hidup yg maksimum
Ø Mengatakan behavior is motivated by the desire for pleasure and the avoidance of pain

1.2.3   Eksistensialisme

Ø Menegaskan bahawa moral berpaksikan kebebasan
Ø Jean Paul Satre: individu yg mematuhi peraturan masyarakat secara sembrono menjejaskan kebebasannya
Ø Tiga bentuk kebebasan: kebebasan jasmani, kehendak & moral

1.3     Kepentingan Beretika

      Teori etika menawarkan kerangka, prosedur, dan pertimbangan moral bagi menentukan sst tindakan

2.0  AKHLAK ISLAM

2.1     Definisi Akhlak

      Perangai yg menyenangkan, lemah lembut dlm pergaulan, berseri wajah, sedikit perselisihan dan baik percakapan
      Hubungan dan pergaulan seseorang itu dgn persekitarannya
      Gaya pertuturan seseorang mencerminkan akhlak yg mulia

2.2     Hubungan Akhlak Dengan Ilmu Tasawuf

      Tasawuf: akhlak yg dipraktikkan oleh setiap individu muslim yg sejati
      Akhlak Islam berasal drpd al-Quran & al-Sunah

2.3     Pendidikan Akhlak/ Tahdhib Al-Akhlaq

      Menghapuskan akhlak buruk yg ada di dlm diri seseorang

2.4     Cara Membentuk Akhlak Mulia

      Melalui latihan yg dilakukan secara bersungguh-sungguh tanpa kenal erti jemu & putus asa
      Dipupuk & dibendung dgn rapi agar dpt tumbuh subur dlm jiwa setiap org
      Disiplin & garis panduan secara khusus diikuti dgn sempurna & penuh minat sehingga menzahirkan tingkah laku yg baik
      Memberi tumpuan secara berfokus kpd adab-adab seharian

2.5     Faedah Akhlak Mulia

      Mencari keredaan & meningkatkan martabat diri di sisi Allah S.W.T.
      Menyampaikan cita-cita seseorang
      Benteng yg kukuh dan jalan mudah utk mendekatkan diri kpd Allah S.W.T.

2.6     Akhlak Mulia Lambang Keimanan Yg Sejati

      Sangat penting di sisi ajaran Islam
      Tanda org yg beriman dpt dikenali melalui pengamatan tingkah laku/ adab sopan yg dipamerkan dlm tindak tanduk seharian

2.7     Bahaya Akhlak Buruk

      Menyempitkan rezeki
      Tidak memberi ketenangan kpd pemiliknya, & mendatangkan keburukan kpd diri sendiri dan org lain

2.8     Akhlak Manusia Secara Semulajadi

      Imam Al-Ghazali mendidik keperibadian seseorang & keyakinan bahawa peribadi/ tabiat semulajadi individu yg jahat dpt diubah menjadi baik
      Beliau kategorikan manusia kepada empat golongan:
                                              i.  Manusia yg bodoh: tidak membezakan antara perbuatan yg baik dgn buruk & mudah utk diubah tabiat
                                            ii.  Manusia yg mengetahui sst perkara yg buruk tetapi tidak membiasakan diri & sukar utk diubah
                                          iii.  Manusia yg mempunyai keyakinan bahawa buruk itu baik & tidak dpt diperbaiki
                                          iv.  Manusia yg berkeyakinan mengerjakan sst kejahatan, melihat kelebihan & menjadi kebanggaan melakukan kejahatan tersebut, & sukar utk memperbaiki

2.9     Hati Tempat Pembentukan Akhlak

      Titik fokus: kebersihan & ketaqwaan hati yg sebenar kpd Allah S.W.T.
      Perbuatan zahir manusia seharian meninggalkan kesan kpd hati dalaman

2.10 Gaya Pembentukan Akhlak Oleh Imam Al-Ghazali

      Dibentuk melalui latihan & mujahadah yg berterusan
      Empat kaedah yg diikuti oleh seseorang murid utk membentuk akhlak mulia:
                                                i.     Bergaul dgn guru yg dpt melihat & menilai segala kekurangan akhlak & mematuhi nasihat guru
                                              ii.     Mencari teman yg dpt mengawasi & menegur perbuatan yg buruk
                                            iii.     Mendengar & memerhati segala kekurangan diri yg dilontarkan oleh pihak musuh
                                            iv.     Menggauli manusia dgn mengawasi sifat-sifat yg tercela & mengambil pelajaran utk memperbaiki diri sendiri

2.11 Matlamat Akhlak

      Membentuk manusia yg sempurna perbuatan di semua tmpt & bersih
      Terbentuk drpd 3 bahagian:
                                                i.     Baik akhlak bersama Allah S.W.T. dgn mengikuti segala perintah tanpa nifaq
                                              ii.     Baik akhlak sesama manusia dgn menghormati yg tua, bersifat kasih sayang dgn yg muda, adil bersama rakan terdekat & tidak menuntut balasan/ keadilan drpd manusia ramai
                                            iii.     Baik akhlak terhadap diri sendiri dgn tidak mengikuti dorongan syaitan

2.12 Fungsi Adab Dalam Pendidikan Akhlak

      Adab mempunyai kaitan yg sangat rapat dgn akhlak
      Maksud adab di sisi tokoh Tasawuf: menghimpunkan sifat-sifat baik zahir & batin kerana Allah S.W.T. yg dikenali sbg macrifah al-nafs; membuang satu sifat drpd sifat-sifat diri seseorang
      Manusia dibahagikan kpd 3 golongan berdasarkan keutamaan minat kpd sst perkara yg mempengaruhi pemikiran & tindak tanduk seseorang:
                                                i.     Ahli dunia: mengutamakan falsafah & balaghah, menghafal teori-teori ilmu & syair-syair Arab
                                              ii.     Ahli agama: mengutamakan riyadah al-nafs, memperbaiki adab luaran, menjaga hak & meninggalkan keinginan syahwat
                                            iii.     Ahli khusus (Tasawuf): mengutamakan kebersihan hati, memelihara rahsia-rahsia ketuhanan, dll

Jumaat, 27 April 2012

MY BIODATA

AMBIGA


FULL NAME : AMBIGA A/P P.PANICHELVAM
MATRIC NU : 206465
COURSE : INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS @ BIBM (HONS)
AGE : 22 YEARS OLD
DPP ADDRESS : 2D-422, DPP TENAGA NASIONAL
FAVORITE COLOR : PINK
HOBBY : WATCHING MOVIE
DREAM CAR : BMW


Khamis, 26 April 2012

The Ice Worm Cometh

The Ice Worm Cometh
In 1887, a glacial geologist named George Frederick Wright was hiking across the Muir Glacier in southeast Alaska when something strange caught his eye. Just as the daylight began to fade, the previously uninterrupted expanse of white snow around him began to develop what appeared to be a five o’clock shadow. These wriggling “whiskers” grew rapidly and emerged from the solid ice, leaving the snow crawling with an astonishing number of small black worms. Within approximately an hour there were tens of thousands of them criss-crossing the snow as far as he could see, leaving nary a square inch unwormed. A few hours later they began to slip effortlessly back into the ice, ultimately leaving nothing but pure white snow behind for the morning sun. The ice scientist brought news of these strange ice wormsback to polite civilization, yet even over a century later little is known about the intriguing organisms.



The creatures that Wright observed were Mesenchytraeus solifugus–inch-or-so long ice-dwelling worms that reside exclusively in the coastal glaciers of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. The ice worms are so married to their home glaciers that even when a glacier is surrounded by a snow field the creatures will not wander more than a few meters from the underlying glacier’s edge. Moreover, these unusual organisms thrive only at temperatures near the freezing point of water. If one warms an ice worm to even a few degrees above freezing the worm will melt into goo. During the coldest months of the year the worms do not appear on the surface at all; it is suspected that they creep deep into the ice and suspend their animations for the duration of winter.

Although the ice worms lack eyes, some unknown mechanism allows them to respond to light and dark. By day the throngs of worms lurk as deep as two meters below the surface, and by night they squirm out to feed. Their preferred foods are bacteria, bits of pollen, and various snow algae including watermelon snow, a pinkish algae which creates swaths of snow that have the hue and aroma of fresh watermelon. Exactly how these worms penetrate the seemingly solid glacier ice is still a mystery. Some researchers hypothesize that the worms use the large pore atop their heads to excrete a lubricant that allows them to slip through minuscule fissures, while others suggest that the same pore might instead secrete an antifreeze agent that melts a path through the ice.
Although ice worms are usually solitary wanderers in the friscalating dusklight, they do occasionally linger in meltwater pools during the day. There they often intermingle as writhing, knotty groups engaged in what is assumed to be reproductive ice worm orgies.
In recent years NASA has provided limited funding to reverse-engineer Mesenchytraeus solifugus‘ cold tolerance to see if it might provide insight into possible life on our icy neighboring planets. More pragmatic scientists are also teasing out the ice worms’ secrets in hopes that the cold-resistant proteins might enable long-term cold-storage of human organ and tissues for transplantation. Sadly, our opportunity to exploit the ice worms is shrinking just as rapidly as the glaciers that they inhabit. Sorry ice worms. With warmest personal regards, humanity.

Rabu, 25 April 2012

CAULIFLOWER STIR FRY

Taip segala entri untuk blog anda disini.
CAULIFLOWER STIR FRY


Stir fry is an easy way to bring out the flavor of the vegetables and it is a healthy way to eat them. I realized that you can stir fry pretty much any vegetable, carrot, spinach, potato, french bean, long bean and many more with the same method with fantastic result/



CAULIFLOWER STIR FRY
Servings   :    3

300g cauliflower cut into small florets
1 carrot sliced
1 onion chopped
2 red chili sliced
1 tsp mustard seeds
1 sprig curry leaves
2 tablespoons oil
1/4 tsp turmeric powder
salt to taste

Selasa, 24 April 2012

Govt scholars must work locally after graduation

Today's headline in http://thestar.com.my


"Govt scholars must work locally after graduation"



PUTRAJAYA: Beginning this year, the award of scholarships will be based on the need for scholars to meet their bond obligations upon graduation, by securing employment either with the public sector or an approved private sector company in Malaysia, the prime minister said.
Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak said he was confident that with the move, the Public Service Department (JPA) and Talent Corporation Malaysia Bhd (TalentCorp) would optimise the nation's best and brightest, to ensure a strong pipeline of top scholars for the Government Transformation Plan (GTP) and Economic Transformation Plan (ETP).
He said Malaysia could not be on the road to a knowledge-intensive and innovation-led economy without the talent to drive it.
"Malaysia has talent, indeed we have global talent, the only problem is that the world knows it and therefore Malaysia has to compete for its own talent," he said.
Najib said in terms of engaging fresh graduates entering employment, TalentCorp sets out a three-prong approach, namely to create awareness on job and career opportunities, enhance the transition from school to workplace such as through internship, and optimise talent such as management of government scholars.
He said during the National Student Consultative Council event last year, student leaders called for greater exposure to careers in National Key Economic Area sectors, and that the government committed to 12,000 internship allocation.
"Today it gives me great pleasure to announce that the incentive is further extended to encompass companies under the Petroleum Income Tax Act 1967," he said. Najib said to further enhance the targeting of upskilling programmes, TalentCorp and the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) would collaborate and coordinate upskilling programmes for graduates to ensure resources are invested according to priority sectors.
"The upskilling is projected to benefit close to 10,000 graduates per year, mainly engineers and will involve an allocation of about RM200mil per annum across various ministries," he said.
Meanwhile, Najib said TalentCorp had outlined three approaches to attract and facilitate global talent, which are reaching out to Malaysians abroad, facilitating returning talents, and enhancing expatriate facilitation.
He said upon immigration innovations introduced last year, over 500 top professional expatriates from leading companies had been granted the Residence Pass, a 10-year visa enabling them to reside and contribute to the Malaysian economy.
"I am pleased to announce that the Residence Pass will be extended to successful entrepreneurs engaged in knowledge-intensive activities," he said.
The prime minister said this in his keynote address when launching TalentCorp's Talent Roadmap 2020 at Putrajaya International Convention Centre (PICC), here Wednesday.
The Talent Roadmap 2020 articulates TalentCorp's role and plan of action towards delivering greater talent availability, in line with the ETP.
Najib said Talent Roadmap 2020 identified three strategic thrusts for talent interventions to optimise Malaysian talent, attract and facilitate global talent, and build networks of top talent. - Bernama

Isnin, 23 April 2012

Interesting Quotes

Hi..........................

Today we see some interesting quotes that i liked and applied....


"It's not the size of the dog in the fight, it's the size of the fight in the dog" - Mark Twain




"Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery" - Charles Caleb Cotton




"Loneliness is the most terrible poverty" - Mother Theresa




"It is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed" - Theodore Roosevelt




"Happiness is a perfume you cannot pour on others without getting a few drops on yourself" - Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ahad, 22 April 2012

The Life That I Have


The life that I have
Is all that I have
And the life that I have
Is yours.
The love that I have
Of the life that I have
Is yours and yours and yours.
A sleep I shall have
A rest I shall have
Yet death will be but a pause.
For the peace of my years
In the long green grass
Will be yours and yours and yours.